Everest Base Camp is the most projecting snow-filled land from where Everest looks like heaven. This snow-filled landscape makes you encounter with ancient Sherpa and Tibetan culture and locales’ lifestyle. Climbing Everest Base Camp has become a lifetime dream that one wants to fulfill. It is a trekkers paradise and is one of the most sought-out trekking destinations in the world. It offers an exotic view of mountain ranges surrounded by the mesmerizing view of the Himalayas, exotic wilderness and evergreen vegetation. This expedition of Everest region is done by people to carve their name in the Himalayan Record and stay alive in the history. Some try it to gather experience and pass to their upcoming generations too.
There are two main routes, Southeast and Northeast, for climbing Mount Everest. southeast route refers to Nepalese side and northeast refers to Tibetan side. Southeast route is the most frequently-used route because it is generally considered safer and has easier access at all. Everest Base Camp from Nepal side is the most recommended and desired one but the flow of tourist to climb base camp from Tibet side is not lesser. The elevation of South Everest Base Camp is 5,380m (17,600ft) and north Everest Base Camp is 5,200m (17,056ft).
Seracs, crevasses and shifting blocks of ice make the icefall which is one of the most dangerous sections of the route for the climbers. Icefall doctors are there for setting up ropes and ladders in the unstable Khumbu icefall. To reduce the risk, climbers will usually begin their summit well before sunrise when the freezing temperatures glue ice blocks in place. Above the icefall, there is Basecamp I at the elevation of 6,065 m (19,900 ft). Camp 1 is mostly a temporary camp for the climbers just spending one night at this camp for warming up and after boosting up they start climbing according to the situation.
Basecamp II so-called Advanced Base Camp (ABC) is established at the elevation of 6,400 m (21,300 ft) from the sea level. Basecamp 2 lies at the end of the Western Cwm, and the base of the Lhotse Face. After a few acclimatizations trip into the Icefall, we will continue up to Mount Everest Camp 2 at 6,400mand we will be moving our way up through the famous and breathtaking western Cwm, which moves gradually up to Camp 2 on Everest with the towering peaks of Mt. Everest, Lhotse and Nuptse all around. The Western Cwm is a relatively flat, gently rising glacial valley, marked by huge lateral crevasses in the center which prevent direct access to the upper reaches of the Cwm.
From ABC, climbers ascend the Lhotse face on set ropes up to Basecamp III, situated on small ledges at the elevation of 7,200 m to 7,400 m. From there, it is another 500 meters to Basecamp IV on the South Col at 7,920 m (26,000 ft). From Basecamp III to Basecamp IV, mountaineers are faced with two additional obstacles and problems. They are, The “Geneva Spur” which is an anvil shaped rib of black rock named by a 1952 Swiss expedition in which fixed ropes help climbers in scrambling and climb over this snow covered rock band and The ''Yellow Band" is a section of huge sedimentary sandstone. The route from the base of the Lhotse face to the Summit is almost always completely fixed with the static line in which climbers have to follow it. On the South Col, climbers are very close to 8,000 m and can only spend limited time at those altitudes even with supplemental oxygen and have less time for the summit as clear weather and low winds are important factors when deciding on a summit attempt.
From Basecamp IV, mountaineers will start their summit with the hope of reaching the summit within 10 to 12 hours. Climbers will first reach "The Balcony" at the elevation of 8,400 m (27,700 ft), a small platform where they can rest and gaze at peaks to the south and east in the early dawn light. Continuing up the ridge, climbers are then faced with a series of impressive rock steps which usually forces them towards the east along the deep snow. At height of 8,750 m (28,700 ft), a small table-sized area of ice and snow marks the South Summit.
From the South Peak, climbers ascend the knife-edge southeast ridge, known as the "Cornice traverse" where snow covers irregular rocks and hills. This is the most exposed part of the climb, as a misstep to the left would throw one 2,400 m (8,000 ft) down the southwest face, while to the immediate right throw down to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) Kangshung face. At the end of this traverse is an imposing a 12 m (40 ft) rock wall called the "Hillary Step" at height of 8,760 m (28,750 ft).
Tenzing Norgay Sherpa and Sir Edmund Hillary were the first mountaineers to rise to this step and they did it with early ice climbing equipment and without fixed ropes. Now, climbers will ascend this step using fixed ropes previously set up by Sherpas along best guidance. Climbers will typically spend less than a half-hour on "top of the world" as they realize they need to descend to Camp IV before darkness sets in, afternoon weather becomes a serious problem to climbers, or supplemental oxygen tanks run out before descending.